Der Huey Lee Xuanzang, world-famous for his sixteen-year pilgrimage to India and career as a translator of Buddhist scriptures, is one of the most illustrious figures in the history of scholastic Chinese Buddhism. For a time during the middle of the Tang Dynasty the Faxiang School achieved a high degree of eminence and popularity across China, but after the passing of Xuanzang and Kuiji the school swiftly declined. He crossed deserts, mountains, rivers and spent eighteen years before his The political thaw and economic boom of the 1980s and 1990s erased many of the obstacles facing the venture. Hsüan-tsang Forges a Link Between China and IndiaOverviewThough Fa-hsien in the fifth century was the first Chinese Buddhist pilgrim to visit India, the trip by Hsüan-tsang more than two centuries later was equal if not greater in terms of historical significance. Hsuan-Tsang, Prajna-Deva, Jnana-Prabha Correspondence; A. Hsuan-tsang traveled to India in … In addition, the philosophy of this school, with its abstruse terminology and hairsplitting analysis of the mind and the senses, was too alien to be accepted by the practical-minded Chinese. Finally comes the awareness of the objects of thought via sense perceptions and ideas. Ranvijay is delivering a speech during an event of promoting Chinese and … It is through Xuanzang and his chief disciple Kuiji (K’uei-chi) (632-682) that the Faxiang (Fa-hsiang or Yogacara/Consciousness-only) School was initiated in China. Comprised in this development of consciousness theory is the concept of conscious justification — phenomena that are presumably external to us can never exist but in intimate association with consciousness itself. Following them, the school divided into two branches, the Nyayanusarino Vijnanavadinah (Vijnanavada School of the Logical Tradition) and the Agamanusarino Vijnanavadinah (Vijnanavada School of the Scriptural Tradition), with the former sub-school postulating the standpoints of the logician Dignaga (c. AD 480-540) and his successor, Dharmakirti (c. AD 600?-680?). One obstacle was that the Ministry of Education claimed that as a religious affair, jurisdiction over the proposal lay with the Ministry of the Interior—which, in turn, maintained that as an educational institution, responsibility lay with the Ministry of Education. After receiving the precepts he mastered the precept section of the Buddhist Canon. Another school derived from the Yogachara School was founded by Hsuan-Tsang (Xuanzang 596-664) based on the writings of Asanga and his half-brother, Vasubandhu. A "contest" was held to decide the name of the new school, but none of the hundreds of entries were used. Xuanzang’s success in religious and philosophical disputes evidently aroused the attention of some Indian potentates, including the King of Assam and the poet-cum-dramatist king Harsha (r. 606-647), who was regarded as a Buddhist patron saint upon the throne like Ashoka and Kanishka of old. The school finally opened under the name of Hsuan Chuang College of Humanities and Social Science (玄奘人文社會學院, Xuanzang Renwen Shehui Xueyuan). Founded in 1997 by the Ven. Hsuan-Tsang, Prajna-Deva, Jnana-Prabha Correspondence; A. Yogacara becomes much better known, nevertheless, not for its practices, but for its rich development in psychological and metaphysical theory. He also travelled through the … He described Harsha as a perfect devotee of Buddha. As the first seven of these arise on the basis of the eighth, they are called the transformed consciousnesses. Deeply confused by myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts, and not receiving any solutions from his Chinese masters, Xuanzang decided to go to India and study in the cradle of Buddhism. Email: [email protected] Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997. alaya-vijnana or storehouse consciousness, which stores and coordinates all the notions reflected in the mind. That duality can only be conquered by enlightenment, which effects the transformation of an ordinary person into a Buddha. This is the only translation by Xuanzang that is not a direct translation of a text, but instead a selective and evaluative editorial drawing on ten distinct texts. Hiuen Tsang Memorial is erected in the memory of the famous Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang. Such a notion is commonly referred to as “Mind Only.”. The object is only a mode of consciousness. The Yogacara School is also known for the development of other key concepts that would hold great influence not merely within their system, but within all forms of later Mahayana to come. Xuanzang, Wade-Giles romanization Hsüan-tsang, original name Chen Yi, honorary epithet San-tsang, also called Muchatipo, Sanskrit Mokshadeva, or Yuanzang, (born 602, Goushi, Luozhou, now Yanshi, … It is a story of imperial expansion as well as self- understanding and transcendence. His great-grandfather was an official serving as a prefect, his grand-father was appointed as Professor in the National College at the capital, and his father was a Confucianist of the rigid conservative type who gave up office and withdrew into seclusion to escape the political turmoil that gripped China at that time. Hiuen Tsang wrote that the army of Harsha consisted of 60,000 war-elephants, 50,000 strong cavalry chariots and a 1,00,000 strong infantry. It was in this Temple that Xuanzang devoted the rest of his life to the translation of the Sanskrit works that he had brought back out of the wide west, assisted by a staff of more than twenty translators, all well-versed in the knowledge of Chinese, Sanskrit, and Buddhism itself. The hells and their tortures, which are taught by Buddhist beliefs as the result of wicked deeds, and to be endured for a very long time till purified, are experienced as the collective fruit of the previous karmas done by those hell inmates. Subsequent studies in India included hetu-vidya (logic), the exegesis of Mahayana texts such as the Mahayana-sutralamkara (Treatise on the Scripture of Adorning the Great Vehicle), and Madhyamika (“Middle-ist”) doctrines. Born of a family possessing erudition for generations in Yanshi prefecture of Henan province, Xuanzang, whose lay name was Chenhui, was the youngest of four children. Introduction: The Unknown Hsuan-tsang; 1. Hsuan-Tsang was a world-famous Chinese Budhdist Monk, traveler and scholar whose recorded accounts of India during his sixteen years long visit to the country is still considered as the greatest account of 7th century Indian history by any foreign traveler. However, the religious studies program has an extensive set of courses on Buddhism, including specialized courses in. 596-664. It is a story of imperial expansion as well as self- understanding and transcendence. He studied in the University of Nalanda. The monastery is named after Xuanzang (602-64), known as Hsuan Tsang in India, a famous Buddhist monk and scholar from China who travelled to India in the seventh century. According to this doctrine, sentient beings possess eight distinct layers of consciousness, the first five — the visual consciousness, auditory consciousness, olfactory consciousness, gustatory consciousness, and tactile consciousness — corresponding to the sense perceptions, the sixth discriminatory consciousness to the thinking mind, the seventh manas consciousness to the notion of ego, and the eighth alaya-consciousness to the repository of all the impressions from one’s past experiences. A burning desire for firsthand clarification prompted Hsüan Tsang to leave for India in 627, stealthily, as it was against the law to travel abroad. Without any reference to the tathagatagarbha itself, the Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra firmly grounds its pan-consciousness upon Absolute Suchness or the existence of the mind as true reality. Indian History Questions & Answers : Chinese traveller Hiuen-Tsang studied at the University of The Life of Hsuan-tsang; 2. These seeds, ripening in the course of future circumstances, find the nearest parallel to the present-day understanding of genes. One of the prime tourist attractions in Nalanda, Hiuen Tsang Memorial was constructed in the memory of Hiuen Tsang, a popular Chinese traveler. Juan di 256. Chinese traveler, Hsuan Tsang, amply demonstrates. Along with his brothers and sister, he received an early education from his father, who instructed him in classical works on filial piety and several other canonical treatises of orthodox Confucianism. In which university did hsuan tsang study Indian lad vows to be a cultural ambassador in China. When Xuanzang requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, the abbot Zheng Shanguo made an exception in his case because of his precocious sapience. Indeed, Xuanzang became Silabhadra’s disciple in 636 and was initiated into the Yogacara lineage of Mahayana learning by the venerable abbot. Since Kuiji aligned himself with this text as assuming the role of Xuanzang’s successor, the East Asian tradition has treated the Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra as the pivotal exemplar of Xuanzang’s teachings. One of the factors resulting in this decadence was the anti-Buddhist imperial persecutions of 845. Representing a two-hundred-year development within the Vijnanavadin tradition subsequent to the Lankavatara Sutra (Sutra on the Buddha’s Entering the Country of Lanka) and being the primary text of the Faxiang School, the Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra is an exhaustive study of the alaya-vijnana and the sevenfold development of the manas, manovijnana, and the five sensorial consciousnesses. These “germs” develop into form, feeling, perception, impulse, and consciousness, collectively known as the Five Aggregates. Surviving the rigors of forbidding deserts and mountains and narrowly escaping the jaws of death, he passed through the central Asiatic regions of Turfan, Karashahr, Tashkent, Samarkand, and Bactria. The store consciousness must be purified of its subject-object duality and notions of false existence, and restored to its pure state tantamount to buddhahood, the Absolute Suchness, and the undifferentiated. They embody the theory of the three natures of the dependently originated, completely real, and imaginary, which are understood as a Yogacara response to the Madhyamika’s truth of emptiness. Hsuan-tsang (sometimes transcribed Xuan Tsang or Xuanzang) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who in 627 AD traveled overland from China to India to obtain Buddhist scriptures. Hsuan Tsang spent two years at the university. Nonetheless, if “idealism” denotes that subjects and objects are no more than a flow of experiences and perceptions, which are of the same nature, and these experiences, just as perceptions, are mental, then this could be called a form of “dynamic idealism.”. Corresponding to this threefold version of the modes of existence is the tri-body doctrine of the Buddha — the Dharma Body, the Reward Body, and the Response Body, a creed that was put into its systematic and highly developed theory by Yogacara thinkers. Reality is to be viewed as an Idea or a Will. In Prayag, or Allahabad as it is known to many, Hsuan Tsang Being a first and foremost idealistic school of Mahayana Buddhism, the Faxiang School categorically discerns chimerical phenomena manifested in consistent patterns of regularity and continuity; in order to justify this order in which only defiled elements could prevail before enlightenment is attained, it created the tenet of the alaya-vijnana. 602 – 664), born Chen Hui / Chen Yi (陈祎), was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who traveled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty. This Nalanda Buddhist University of old serves as an inspiration to … Sarvastivadin sutras, Vinaya, sastras: 67 Upon his return to Chang’an in 645, Xuanzang brought back with him a great number of Sanskrit texts, of which he was able to translate only a small portion during the remainder of his lifetime. In 629, defying imperial proscription, he secretly set out on his epochal journey to the land of the Buddha from Chang’an. Xuanzang [ɕɥɛ̌n.tsâŋ] (Chinese: 玄奘; fl. Journey to the West is probably the most influential one ofthe four classic novels in the Chinese literature and surelythe best-known one on foreign lands. There are no religious requirements or restrictions (these would not be allowed by the Ministry of Education) and, except for a handful of monks and nuns, religion does not seem to be an important factor in attracting students. While at Nalanda, Xuanzang also studied Sanskrit and Brahmana philosophy. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Hsuan-Tsang on pronouncekiwi This work is else a dedication to Hsuan-tsang’s Alam Mater, the Nalanda Mahavihara, the imposing ruins of which can be see even today. The "rump" project was led by Liao Zhong, a monk and BAROC official who would ultimately chair Hsuan Chuang's board of directors. Reporter: Luo Laiming and Chen Ziqi. Juan di 246 / Xuanzang yi. Hsuan-tsang (ca. Another famous Chinese monk, I tsing traveled in India between 671 - 695 A.D. In response, Xuanzang undertook a hunger strike until the king relented, extracting from Xuanzang a promise to return and spend three years in the kingdom upon his return. Hsuan Tsang was born in AD 602 at present day’s Henan province, China. Another likely factor was the harsh criticism of Faxiang by members of the Huayan (Hua-yen) School. Hsinchu was chosen as the school's location for its proximity to the Buddhist teachers resident in north Taiwan and for its cheap land prices relative to Taipei. Hsuan-tsang left detailed accounts of his travels, and also wrote about the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and In… Here he spent approximately a month preaching the Buddhist message before being invited to Hami by King Qu Wentai (Ch’u Wen-tai) of Turfan, a pious Buddhist of Chinese extraction. Mahayanist sastras: 192 Lan Ji-fu, ed. After some time in the Gobi Desert, he arrived in Liangzhou in modern Gansu province, the westernmost extent of the Chinese frontier at that time and the southern terminus of the Silk Road trade route connecting China with Central Asia. According to Thomas Watters, the total number of texts brought by Xuanzang from India to China is six hundred and fifty seven, enumerated as follows: Mahayanist sutras: 224 items He proceeded to Kapilavastu, Bodh-Gaya, Sarnath, and Kusinagara. during the Gupta period and stayed at Nalanda University … As a result, there are, in effect, two phonetic "interpretations" of the name of the historical monk alluded to (i.e., Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang). My Dashboard; Get Published; Home; Books; Search; Support. His scholarship enabled him to participate wholeheartedly in life at Nalanda University in India, and subsequently back in China to undertake his great work of translating sacred texts from Sanskrit into Chinese. The central concept of this school is borrowed from a statement by Vasubandhu — idam sarvam vijnaptimatrakam, “All this world is ideation only.” It strongly claims that the external world is merely a fabrication of our consciousness, that the external world does not exist, and that the internal ideation presents an appearance as if it were an outer world. Broadly speaking, Mere-Consciousness may cover the eight consciousnesses, the articulation of which forms one of the most seminal and distinctive aspects of the doctrine of the Yogacara School, transmitted to East Asia where it received the somewhat pejorative designations of Dharma-character School and Consciousness-only School. In 618, due to the civil war breaking out in Henan, Xuanzang and his brother sought refuge in the mountains of Sichuan, where he spent three years or so in the monastery of Kong Hui plunging into the study of various Buddhist texts, such as the Abhidharmakosa-sastra (Abhidharma Storehouse Treatise. This principle might be illustrated by the school’s favorite citation: “A seed produces a manifestation, Vasubandhu began his, Vimsatika vijnapti-matrata-siddhih (Twenty Verses on Consciousness-only) by stating: “All this is only perception, since consciousness manifests itself in the form of nonexistent objects.” There is only a flow of perceptions. As an early and influential Chinese Buddhist monk, Xuanzang embodies the tensions inherent in Chinese Buddhism: filial piety versus monastic discipline, Confucian orthodoxy versus Mahayana progressivism, etc. He, then, proceeded to Bengal and visited South India as well, as far as Kanchi. The distinguishing features of the Faxiang School lie in its highlight of meditation and broadly psychological analyses. Hsiian-tsang, our Buddhist Pausanias and Marco Polo combined, to whose travels from China across Central Asia to India and back in the second quarter of the seventh century a.d. we owe such ample … In 2008, the school was reevaluated by Taiwan's Ministry of Education, as a result of which one-third of its departments were placed on probation. Vasubhandhu, again in his Vimsatika, undertook to prove the invalidity of some of these: In reply, Vasubandhu argued that these were after all no objections; they simply failed to show that perception-only as a teaching was beyond the limits of what could be concretely reasoned. His great-grandfather was an official serving as a prefect, his grand-father was appointed as Professor in the National College at the capital, and his father was a Confucianist of the rigid conservative type who gave up office and withdrew into seclusion to escape the po… When asked why he became a bhiksu he replied that he wished to study and worship the Buddha and his teachings. He remained at the University of Nalanda for about five years. Though Buddhism had been the dominant religion in much of the Gangetic plains in the early part of the Christian era, Hsuan Tsang, traveling in India in the early years of the 7. th century, witnessed something quite different. It does not follow that entities, which we generally accept as real, can be placed in the same class. Indian History Questions & Answers : Chinese traveller Hiuen-Tsang studied at the University of This briefer version appears here with permission of the editor. Harsha called a religious assembly at Kannauj to honour him. He returned to China in 643, bringing with him precious manuscripts that he then translated to Chinese. Doctoral dissertation in Religious Studies, University of Virginia, 1996. Moreover, the second objection can be met by recourse to the wider Buddhist religious framework. It soon became apparent to Xuanzang that Qu Wentai, although most hospitable and respectful, planned to detain him for life in his Court as its ecclesiastical head. Buddhism in Taiwan: A Historical Survey. Pronunciation of Hsuan with 2 audio pronunciations, 4 translations, 1 sentence and more for Hsuan. map. Another school derived from the Yogachara School was founded by Hsuan-Tsang (Xuanzang 596-664) based on the writings of Asanga and his half-brother, Vasubandhu. Traditional sources report that Xuanzang’s arrival in Chang’an was greeted with an imperial audience and an offer of official position (which Xuanzang declined), followed by an assembly of all the Buddhist monks of the capital city, who accepted the manuscripts, relics, and statues brought back by the pilgrim and deposited them in the Temple of Great Happiness. Spatiotemporal determination would be impossible — experiences of object X are not occurrent everywhere and at every time so there must be some external basis for our experiences. After receiving the precepts he mastered the precept section of the Buddhist Canon. Born as the youngest of four brothers, Hsuan Tsang accompanied his older brother Chang-tsi, who was a Buddhist monk, to a Pure Land Buddhist temple where he was ordained a monk at the age of thirteen (Beal xviii). Xuanzang also critiqued the atheistic monism of the Jains, especially inveighing against what he saw as their caricature of Buddhism in terms of Jain monastic garb and iconography. Yogacara is also the original source for the theory of the three bodies of the Buddha, and greatly expands the notions of categories of elemental constructs. Such tensions can be seen not only in his personal legacies, which include the extremely popular Chinese novel based on his travels, Xiyouji (Journey to the West), but also in the career of scholastic Buddhism in China. For several decades, senior officials of the Buddhist Association of the Republic of China (BAROC) pressured the government to overturn these restrictions and allow a private Buddhist university similar to the Fu Jen Catholic University. Peking University The excavation in the last five years have thrown new lights on structure and artefacts of that time, the officials said. Introduction: The Unknown Hsuan-tsang; 1. During his travels, he visited places that we today know as Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and – of course – India. 6. The common view that external phenomena exist is due to a misconception that is removable through a meditative or yogic process, which brings a complete withdrawal from these fictitious externals, and an inner concentration and tranquility may accordingly be bodied forth. As Fa-hsien spurred Chinese interest in Buddhism by bringing back scriptures from its birthplace in India, Hsüan-tsang … Liao Zhong (了中) and named for the Tang Dynasty monk Xuanzang, the school was promoted to university status in 2004. 880-01 Da bo re bo luo mi duo jing. The universe consists in an infinite number of possible ideas that lie inactively in storage. Hsuan Tsang was born in Ho-nan province around the year 600 CE. This creativity is manifested at different levels of consciousness. Spatiotemporal determination can be elucidated on the analogy of dream experience, where a complete and surreal world is created with objects appearing to have spatiotemporal localization despite the fact that they do not exist apart from the mind which is cognizing them. In contrast, the eighth is known as the base consciousness, store consciousness, or seed consciousness. Hiuen Tsang … How do you say Hsuan-Tsang? Another Chinese scholar I-Tsing, spent ten … 596-664. The Chinese Faxiang School, derived from the Indian Yogacara (yoga practice) School, is based upon the writings of two brothers, Asanga and Vasubandhu, who explicated a course of practice wherein hindrances are removed according to a sequence of stages, from which it gets its name. According to it, the object is not at all as it seems, and thus can not be of any service to knowledge. The flow of experiences could barely be a physical or material flow. Xuanzang reports that he trav… Jones, Charles Brewer. As a result, he commenced visiting the monastery of Jingtu at Luoyang where his brother dwelled as a Buddhist monk, and studying sacred texts of the faith with all the ardor of a young convert. Hiuen Tsang visited Kashmir and the Punjab. This storage consciousness takes in all the impressions of previous experiences, which shape up the seeds of future karmic action, an illusory force creating outer categories that are actually only fictions of the mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.Edkins, Joseph. One of the prime tourist attractions in Nalanda, Hiuen Tsang Memorial was constructed in the memory of Hiuen Tsang, a popular Chinese traveler. At long last, Xuanzang reached his ultimate destination, where his strongest personal interest in Buddhism was located and the principal portion of his time abroad was spent: the Nalanda monastery, located southwest of the modern city of Bihar in northern Bihar state. Bapat, P. V., and K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, eds. As a creative and elaborate exposition of Vasubandhu’s Trimsika-vijnapti-matrata-siddhi (Treatise in Thirty Stanzas on Consciousness Only) rendered by Xuanzang in 648 at Great Happiness Monastery, it synthesizes the ten most significant commentaries written on it, and becomes the enchiridion of the new Faxiang School of Buddhist idealism. His rendition of the Mahayana-samparigraha-sastra (Compendium of the Great Vehicle) by Asanga provided a sound base for the Sanlun (Three-Treatise) School, which preceded the Faxiang School as the vehicle of Yogacara thought in China. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Hsuan Tsang was like a starving man in search of food; Hsuan tsang reported that, at Nalanda University, the number of teachers was 1,500 and of learners 10,000. From the Chinese Text of the Life of Hsuan-tsang; B. Hsuan-tsang is believed to have travelled from China to research Buddhism and had come across Nalanda University that he described as “azure pool winds around the monasteries, adorned with the full-blown cups of the blue lotus; the dazzling red flowers of the lovely kanaka hang here and there, and outside groves of mango trees offer the inhabitants their dense and protective shade”. And in particular, it is this last consciousness that the Mere-Consciousness is all about. The Chung-hwa Fo Jian Bai Ke Quan Shu: Religious Affairs Committee of Foguangshan Buddhist Order , 1993. In order to honor the famous Buddhist scholar, the Tang Emperor Gaozong (Gao-tsung) cancelled all audiences for three days after Xuanzang’s death. He returned to China in 643, bringing with him precious manuscripts that he then translated to Chinese. Then ideation gradually takes shape, which triggers off a self or mind against an outer world. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. See pp. The appellation of the school originated with the title of an important fourth- or fifth-century CE text of the school, the Yogacarabhumi-sastra. University … Reporter: Luo Laiming and Chen Ziqi. Depicted in the novelis the hard journey that Hsuan-tsang, an eminent monk, andhis three followers make across west China to India to fetchBuddhist scripture. Hsuan-tsang … His scholarship enabled him to participate wholeheartedly in life at Nalanda University in India… Alaya–consciousness is posited as the receptacle of the imprint of thoughts and deeds, thus it is the dwelling of sundry karmic seeds. It offers bachelor's and master's degrees, mainly in humanities subjects. The Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-sastra spells out how there can be a common empirical world for different individuals who ideate or construct particular objects, and who possess distinct bodies and sensory systems. 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