[45] Species differentiation was based largely on differences in morphology, such as size, fur color, and head markings. The length of the Bengal slow loris varies between 26 and 38 cm from head to tail. Bengal slow lorises are the largest of the species, weighing up to two kilograms. Conservationists hope the finding will add impetus to efforts to protect the double-tongued animals. Also known as the greater slow loris, the Sunda slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) is native to the forests of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. These slow lorises prefer to live in groups with a few offsprings. The species is named ? Pygmy slow lorises are one of the few primate species that slip into torpor (an abbreviated type of hibernation) during cool months (late October to early April). It measures 27 to 38 cm from head to tail and weighs between 599 and 685 g. Like other slow lorises, it has a wet nose, a round head, small ears hidden in thick fur, a flat face, large eyes and a vestigial tail. [117][118] Slow lorises can use both hands to eat while hanging upside down from a branch. Their arms and legs are nearly equal in length, and their torso is long and flexible, allowing them to twist and extend to nearby branches. Species: Nycticebus coucang. [129][137], Despite frequent advertisements by pet shops in Japan, the World Conservation Monitoring Centre reported that only a few dozen slow lorises were legally imported in 2006, suggesting frequent smuggling. Further studies by scientists are required. [110] The most common dietary item was nectar from flowers of the Bertram palm (Eugeissona tristis). [127], Primatologist Anna Nekaris, in 2009 discussing the misleading information posted on YouTube. Their eye rings are separated by a white stripe and their lips and noses are covered by moist skin. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is widely recognized as the most comprehensive, objective global approach for evaluating the conservation status of plant and animal species. Animal dealers in Southeast Asia keep tanks of water nearby so that in case of a bite, they can submerge both their arm and the slow loris to make the animal let go. CURRENT RANGE: Tropical evergreen rainforests across Southeast Asia CURRENT THREATS: Deforestation and the illegal animal trade CONSERVATION STATUS: Endangered WHERE YOU CAN SEE THEM: In Southern Asia (from India east to China and the Philippines) and zoos all over the … [143][121][142] According to data compiled from monthly surveys and interviews with local traders, nearly a thousand locally sourced slow lorises exchanged hands in the Medan bird market in North Sumatra during the late first decade of the 21st century. [127] Slow lorises have lost a significant amount of habitat,[128] with habitat fragmentation isolating small populations and obstructing biological dispersal. They lack the opsin gene that would allow them to detect short wavelength light, which includes the colors blue and green. Photo courtesy Rainforest Rescue Endangered Species Spotlight: Slow Loris . This species, like other slow lorises in Indonesia, is caught for use in the pet trade and to a lesser extent for traditional beliefs and folk medicines (Nekaris et al. It is a “Vulnerable” species according to the IUCN. Lack of law enforcement further threatens slow loris species across their range (Nijman et … [8] Their intermembral index (ratio of arm to leg length) averages 89, indicating that their forelimbs are slightly shorter than their hind limbs. The Nycticebus borneanus or the Bornean slow loris is native to Borneo, Indonesia. [63] The trunk is longer than in other living strepsirrhines[73] because they have 15–16 thoracic vertebrae, compared to 12–14 in other living strepsirrhines. There are eight recognized species of slow lorises that include the Sunda slow loris, Javan slow loris, Bengal slow loris, pygmy slow loris, Bangka slow loris, Bornean slow loris, Philippine slow loris, and the Kayan River slow loris. To get to the bottom of how slow lorises use their venom in nature, Dr. Nekaris used radio collars to track 82 Javan slow lorises, a critically endangered species in Indonesia. Of the 29 captive specimens in North American zoos in 2008, several are hybrids that cannot breed, while most are past their reproductive years. The Nycticebus genus contains slow Lorises, of which there are 8 species. kayan). Slow lorises reproduce slowly, and the infants are initially parked on branches or carried by either parent. [85] The Sunda slow loris (N. coucang) occurs on Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, including Singapore and southern Thailand (the Isthmus of Kra). The smallest species, the pygmy slow loris (N. pygmaeus), is restricted to forests east of the Mekong River and is about 25 cm (about 10 inches)… [92][93] In the absence of direct studies of the genus, primatologist Simon Bearder speculated that slow loris social behavior is similar to that of the potto, another nocturnal primate. They move with slow, deliberate hand-over-hand movements ... 5" x 7" full-color photo of your species; Species spotlight card, full of fascinating information about the animal; FREE priority shipping; Personalized acknowledgment letter to your gift recipient. [133] Despite their CITES Appendix I status and local legal protection, slow lorises are still threatened by both local and international trade due to problems with enforcement. The two species of slender loris (the red slender loris [Loris tardigradus] and the gray slender loris [L. lydekkerianus]) of India and Sri Lanka are about 20–25 cm (8–10 inches) long and have long slender limbs, small hands, a rounded head, and a pointed muzzle. [140] According to National Geographic, slow lorises are protected by both local laws in southern Asia and by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). [75] Copulation often occurs while suspended with the hands and feet clinging to horizontal branches for support. The Larissidae family consists of loris, galagos and potos, and consists of 9 genera and more than 25 species that are found in the south of Africa in the Sahara, southern India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia and eastern Indies. cades, sightings of the slow loris have increased remarkably, and these have coincided with an increase in nocturnal surveys. Lorises are not immune to their own species' venom. Slow lorises move slowly and deliberately, making little or no noise, and when threatened, they stop moving and remain motionless. The pygmy slow loris (N. pygmaeus) occurs east of the Mekong River in Yunnan, Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. To make contact with other individuals, they emit a single high-pitched rising tone, and females use a high whistle when in estrus. The pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) inhabits forests to the east of the Mekong River. More recently, researchers have documented the belief that the consumption of loris meat was an aphrodisiac that improves "male power". [75][89] They prefer forests with high, dense canopies,[63][88] although some species have also been found in disturbed habitats, such as cacao plantations and mixed-crop home gardens. ", "Letters from the Menage Scientific Expedition to the Philippine Islands", International Animal Rescue: Saving the slow loris, Dr. Anna Nekaris' research and conservation, Asian loris and African pottos conservation website directory, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slow_loris&oldid=995540678, Taxa named by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 16:31. Since they consume a relatively high-calorie diet that is available year-round, it has been proposed that this slow metabolism is due primarily to the need to eliminate toxic compounds from their food. This species has the most extensive range among all slow loris species. [8][57][76] Both slender and slow lorises have relatively short feet. The facts in this article probably apply to all of the slow loris species, but there may be exceptions. They possess a dual composite venom consisting of saliva and brachial gland exudate, a malodourous fluid forming from an apocrine sweat gland on the animal's forearm. Slow lorises are nocturnal and arboreal, or tree-dwelling, primates. Their collective range stretches from Northeast India through Indochina, east to the Sulu Archipelago (the small, southern islands of the Philippines), and south to the island of Java (including Borneo, Sumatra, and many small nearby islands). [129], Until the 1960s, the hunting of slow lorises was sustainable,[128] but due to growing demand, decreased supply, and the subsequent increased value of the marketed wildlife, slow lorises have been overexploited and are in decline. [47] This hypothesis was corroborated by a 2007 study that compared the variations in mitochondrial DNA sequences between N. bengalensis and N. coucang, and suggested that there has been gene flow between the two species. It seems that some people experience more severe effects from the venom than others, however. A suite of additional effects of the venom have been documented including ranging from mild to permanent disfigurement and mobility loss and near-death. [61] The brains of slow lorises have more folds (convolutions) than the brains of galagos. A keen sense of smell helps them locate prey in the dark, and their strong grasp allows them to stay in one position for hours. [24] Consequently, there has been some disagreement over the identity of Tardigradus coucang; currently the name is given to the Sunda slow loris. Females reach sexual maturity at 18 to 24 months, while males are capable of reproducing at 17 months. [105], Studies suggest that slow lorises are polygynandrous. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Likewise, gestation lasts 185 to 197 days, and the young weigh between 30 and 60 grams (1.1 and 2.1 oz) at birth. The Javan slow loris is also an omnivore and feeds on eggs, lizards, fruit, tree gum, etc. Their toxic bite, once thought to be primarily a deterrent to predators, has been discovered to be primarily used in disputes within the species. It has gone locally extinct in several regions. pygmaeus. This manifested as incorrect Red List assessments of "Least Concern" as recently as 2000. Slow Loris . There are 10 different species of Lorises, which researchers divide into 2 genuses. [79] They are found in India (Northeastern states),[79][80][81] China (Yunnan province), Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia,[79] Brunei,[82] and Singapore. [44] In 2008, Groves and Ibnu Maryanto confirmed the promotion of the fifth species, the Javan slow loris, to species status, a move that had been suggested in previous studies from 2000. "On the early editions of Lacépède's "Tableaux des mammifères et des oiseaux", with remarks on two hitherto overlooked species: "Classification des oiseaux et des mammifères", "Vet Describes the Plight of Indonesia's Primates", "Taxonomy of the Bornean slow loris, with new species, "Extreme primates: Ecology and evolution of Asian lorises". The three newest species are yet to be evaluated, but they arise from (and further reduce the ranks of) what was thought to be a single "vulnerable" species. The Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus) is native to the island of Java, Indonesia where it inhabits primary and secondary forest habitats. They are omnivores, eating small animals, fruit, tree gum, and other vegetarians Each of the slow loris species that had been identified prior to 2012 is listed as either "Vulnerable" or … In captivity, they can live 20 or more years. The animals start to feed around sunset and have an omnivorous diet. Bengal slow lorises are the largest of the species, weighing up to two kilograms. Their trunk is longer than that of other living strepsirrhines and ar… [136] As many as 95% of the slow lorises rescued from the markets die of dental infection or improper care. [63] Like other strepsirrhine primates, the nose and lip are covered by a moist skin called the rhinarium ("wet nose"), which is a sense organ. [13] The Thai record is based on a single tooth that most closely resembles living slow lorises and that is tentatively classified as a species of Nycticebus. Most notably, the most unique trait of animals in this remarkable group is that each of the species has a toxic bite. For example, slow lorises can feed on Gluta bark, which may be fatal to humans. Found in Southeast Asia and bordering regions, they range from Bangladesh and northeast India in the west to the Sulu Islands of the Philippines in the east and Yunnan Province in north China to Java Island in the south. … [47] Previous molecular analyses using karyotypes,[48] restriction enzymes,[49] and DNA sequences[50] were focused on understanding the relationships between a few species, not the phylogeny of the entire genus. Slow lorises are one of only six mammal species known to be venomous. The international trafficking of slow lorises began when 18th-century Dutch explorers brought home lorises from their voyages to southeast Asia. Habitat loss and illegal wildlife trade threaten the Kayan river slow loris populations. [6][7] Lorisoids are thought to have evolved in Africa, where most living species occur;[9][10] later, one group may have migrated to Asia and evolved into the slender and slow lorises of today. It is one of the smallest species of slow loris and weighs only 265 to 300 kg. [92], Preliminary results of studies on the pygmy slow loris indicate that its diet consists primarily of gums and nectar (especially nectar from Saraca dives flowers), and that animal prey makes up 30–40% of its diet. [141] Furthermore, few know about their strong odor[142] or their painful bite, which may lead to anaphylaxis in some cases. They make poor pets as they are nocturnal, have specialized diets, are difficult to care for, and often die from infection, blood loss, improper caring and handling or inadequate nutrition. The species is also classified as “Vulnerable” since it has suffered for decades from the ill effects of the illegal wildlife trade and habitat loss on their population. [137] According to Nekaris, these videos are misunderstood by most people who watch them, since most do not realize that it is illegal in most countries to own them as pets and that the slow lorises in the videos are only docile because that is their passive defensive reaction to threatening situations. Once disturbed, they immediately stop moving and remain motionless. The Bangka slow loris has a toxic bite. [94], Such a social system is distinguished by a lack of matriarchy and by factors that allow the slow loris to remain inconspicuous and minimize energy expenditure. [97] To move between trees, they carefully grip the terminal branches of the neighboring tree and pull themselves across the small gap. [8] They will also grip branches with only their hind feet, lift themselves upright, and quickly launch forward with their hands to catch prey. It is possible that this layer blurs the images they see, as the reflected light may interfere with the incoming light. This fact makes this mammal the only known venomous primate on earth. [22], Slow lorises range in weight from the Bornean slow loris at 265 grams (9.3 oz) to as much as 2,100 grams (74 oz) for the Bengal slow loris. [19] The word "loris" was first used in 1765 by Buffon as a close equivalent to a Dutch name, loeris. The Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) or northern slow loris is a strepsirrhine primate and a species of slow loris native to the Indian subcontinent and Indochina. Thus a Malay may commit a crime he did not premeditate, and then find that an enemy had buried a particular part of a Loris under his threshold, which had, unknown to him, compelled him to act to his own disadvantage. [20], In 1785, the Dutch physician and naturalist Pieter Boddaert was the first to officially describe a species of slow loris using the name Tardigradus coucang. [138], International trade usually causes a high mortality rate during transit, between 30% and 90%. They based their decision on an analysis of cranial morphology and characteristics of pelage. [116] Several anatomical adaptations present in slow lorises may enhance their ability to feed on exudates: a long narrow tongue to make it easier to reach gum stashed in cracks and crevices, a large cecum to help the animal digest complex carbohydrates, and a short duodenum to help quickly pass potentially toxic exudates. Each of the slow loris species that had been identified prior to 2012 is listed as either "Vulnerable" or "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List. Deep-rooted beliefs about the supernatural powers of slow lorises, such as their purported abilities to ward off evil spirits or to cure wounds, have popularized their use in traditional medicine. [8][75][76] The toes have a large flexor muscle that originates on the lower end of the thigh bone, which helps to impart a strong grasping ability to the hind limbs. Little is known about their social structure, but they are known to communicate by scent marking. Pygmy slow lorises are doing better in North American zoos; from the late 1980s (when they were imported) to 2008, the population grew to 74 animals, with most of them born at the San Diego Zoo. [15] Molecular clock analysis suggests that slow lorises may have started evolving into distinct species about 10 mya. [83] The Bengal slow loris (N. bengalensis) has the largest distribution of all the slow lorises[86] and can be found in Bangladesh, Cambodia, southern China, Northeast India, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. Males are highly territorial. [27][28], In 1812, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire named the genus Nycticebus,[29] naming it for its nocturnal behavior. Stranger still, the slow lorsises’ venom isn’t in their saliva, but is produced when the animals raise their arms above their heads (like in that cute video) and “quickly lick venomous-oil secreting glands located on their upper arms.” Beliefs about slow lorises and their use in traditional practices are deep-rooted and go back at least 300 years, if not earlier based on oral traditions. This species of slow loris prefers to inhabit evergreen forests within its range. 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